Native Hardwood Tree Seedling Establishment Following Invasive Autumn-Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) Removal on a Reclaimed Coal Mine

Franke, Zipper, and Barney. 2018. Invasive Plant Science and Management. Volume 11, Issue 3 September 2018, pp. 155-161. 
Coal mining has caused large-scale disturbance on over 1.5 million acres in Appalachia. Invasive, non-native autumn olive was historically planted on former coalfields and now impedes reclamation efforts. Studies conducted by Virginia Tech show that cutting and applying Garlon ® 4 Ultra (20% v/v with basal oil) resulted in less autumn olive regeneration than cutting alone. This treatment appears to provide greater assurance that established desirable trees will persist over the long term.