Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia esula) Control and Soil Seedbank Composition 19 Years After Release of Aphthona spp. Biological Control Agents

Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) was considered a prime candidate for biological control in the 1980s because the deep-rooted perennial weed had invaded thousands of hectares of land in a variety of habitats, such as grasslands, woodlands, riparian areas, and waterways. This article discusses the long-term impact of Aphthona flea beetles on leafy spurge infestations in North Dakota.