Pearce and Smith. 2001. Environmental Management Vol. 28, No. 5, pp. 623–637
The eventual replacement of native plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides) forests by Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) is a serious threat to biodiversity on floodplains in western North America. Low palatability of Russian olive saplings and trees, easily dispersed seed, and three-year seed viability give Russian olive a competitive advantage over native woody riparian plants. Read entire article here.