Section 8. References and Links


Almquist TL and RG Lym. 2010. Effect of Aminopyralid on Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) and the Native Plant Community in a Restored Tallgrass Prairie. Invasive Plant Science and Management 3(2):155-168. Also available at

Bockenstedt, Paul. 2014 personal communication. Ecologist/Project Manager at Santec, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota.

Douglass C, JD Vassios, S Nissen, VF Peterson. 2011. Rangeland Grass species tolerance to pre-plant applications of aminopyralid and aminocyclopyrachlor. In B McCloskey (Ed), Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science, Volume 64. Spokane, Washington, USA 7-10 March 2011. Abstract also available at:

Duncan CA and JK Clark eds. 2005. Invasive Plants of Range and Wildlands and Their Environmental, Economic and Societal Impacts. Weed Science Society of America.

Duncan CA. 2011. Overcoming Challenges to Restore Native Tallgrass Prairie. Techline Invasive Plant News.

Duncan CA. 2013. Pheasants Forever: Conserving Wildlife Through Habitat Protection and Restoration. Techline Invasive Plant News

Green P, VF Peterson, C Crabtree, T Prather, J Wallace. 2011. Effect of aminopyralid on native forbs and grasses. In Proceedings, Western Soc. of Weed Sci. Vol. 64. P.60.

Halstvedt MB, VF Peterson, RL Becker, RG Lym, and MJ Moechnig. 2011. Native grass establishment with aminopyralid. In Proceedings, Western Soc. of Weed Sci. Vol 64. P. 63.

Lym R, R Becker, M Moechnig and C Duncan. 2011. Native grass establishment following herbicide applications. TechLine Invasive Plant News, 18 Aug 2011. Available online at:

Mikkelson JR and RG Lym. 2013. Effect of Aminopyralid on Desirable Forb Species. Invasive Plant Science and Management 6(1):30-35. 2013. Also available at

Pederson, Dennis. 2013. Personal communication; Habitat Forever restoration specialist.

Renz M, M Moechnig, MB Halstvedt. 2012. Establishing wildflowers after herbicide application. Techline Invasive Plant News

Sheley, RL and JK Petroff (eds.) 1999. Biology and Management of Noxious Rangeland Weeds. Oregon State Univ. Press.

Tu M, C Hurd, JM Randall. 2001.  Weed Control Methods Handbook: Tools and Techniques for Use in Natural Areas. Available online at:

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Always read and follow label directions.
Milestone has no grazing or haying restrictions for any class of livestock, including lactating dairy cows, horses (including lactating mares) and meat animals prior to slaughter. However, label precautions do apply to forage treated with Milestone and to manure from animals that have consumed treated forage within the last three days. Consult the label for full details. Some states require an individual be licensed if involved in the recommendation, handling or application of any pesticide. Consult your local Extension office for information regarding licensing requirements. Milestone is not registered for sale or use in all states. Contact your state pesticide regulatory agency to determine if a product is registered for sale or use in your state.
Opensight specialty herbicides: When treating areas in and around roadside or utility rights-of-way that are or will be grazed, hayed or planted to forage, important label precautions apply regarding harvesting hay from treated sites, using manure from animals grazing on treated areas or rotating the treated area to sensitive crops. See the product label for details.
State restrictions on the sale and use of Garlon 4 Ultra, Opensight, Accord XRT II and Transline apply. Consult the label before purchase or use for full details.


This publication provides resources to land managers so they can better understand how and when to integrate herbicides in prairie and grassland management programs.  Information on herbicide use rates, herbicide selectivity on desirable forbs and grasses, seeding guidelines, invasive woody and herbaceous plant control, and other useful tips are provided in this document.

Editors: Celestine Duncan, Mary Halstvedt, Louanne Brooks, Scott Wright
Design: Melissa B Munson
Integrating Herbicides in Prairie and Grassland Management: A Practical and Technical Guide, First Edition
Copyright © 2015 by Dow AgroSciences.
Online at: http://