Section 4: Tolerance of Established Forbs and Grasses to Milestone® Specialty Herbicide

The effect of Milestone on desirable native forbs is a consideration for land managers when making decisions about controlling invasive plants. The following information summarizes research on established forbs that are tolerant to Milestone  (Table 4.1). Established forbs include those growing for a minimum of two years at field sites, and less than one year in a greenhouse study. Experiments were conducted in three states: Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

Table 4.1 Tolerance Rankings of Established Forb Species to Milestone® Specialty Herbicide

Results Summary

  • Most native forb species were moderately tolerant to tolerant, or recovered following treatment with Milestone® specialty herbicide.
  • Land managers can use these data as a guideline to evaluate risk and benefits to native plant communities when using Milestone for invasive plant management.
  • Milestone can be used to manage invasive plants in mixed plant communities and can serve as a catalyst to manage invasive plants and facilitate recovery of desirable forbs.

To obtain an electronic copy of the full report that also includes data for western range and wildland sites, go to
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Newly Emerged Grasses

Milestone® or Transline® applications should be made after seeded grasses have established a secondary root system and plants are tillering (growing more than one shoot). A secondary root system is usually developed by 45 to 60 days after emergence, depending on growing conditions.  Increased injury to grass seedlings may result when either Milestone or Transline is applied in tank mixes with other herbicides such as 2,4-D. Consult labels for all herbicides applied.

Established Grasses

Established grasses have excellent tolerance to Milestone at the maximum use rate of 7 fl oz/ac and to Transline at 24 fl oz/ac. Examples of desirable warm- and cool-season grasses with known tolerance to both Milestone and Transline are listed below.

Warm Season

Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii)
Blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis)
Buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides)
Gallettagrass (Pleuraphis jamesii)
Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans)
Little bluestem (Andropogon scoparius)
Sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula)
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

Cool Season

Green needlegrass (Nassella virdula)
Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)
Siberian wheatgrass (Agropyron spp.)
Slender wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus
Streambank wheatgrass (Agropyron riparium)
Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea)
Western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii)