Managing Invasive Buckthorn in Natural Areas

Managing Invasive Buckthorn in Natural Areas

Common (European) buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) and glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus[Rhamnus frangula]) are non-native, deciduous, woody shrubs or small trees introduced to North America during the 1800s as ornamentals, hedgerow plantings, shelterbelts, and wildlife habitat. They escaped cultivation and have aggressively invaded natural areas and forestland throughout much of the United States and Canada (Figure 1). Non-native buckthorn spreads through intentional plantings and through wildlife seed distribution, especially from birds.

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Distinguishing Non-Native Buckthorn from Native Alderleaf Buckthorn

Distinguishing Non-Native Buckthorn from Native Alderleaf Buckthorn

Distinguishing between non-native and native buckthorn is important so that management efforts can be targeted appropriately. The following description separates the two invasive buckthorns from the native alderleaf buckthorn.

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Managing Tall Buttercup in Pastures and Natural Areas

Managing Tall Buttercup in Pastures and Natural Areas

Tall buttercup is an introduced perennial forb that is widespread throughout much of North America. It is invasive on irrigated and sub-irrigated pastures, meadows, stream banks, roadsides, and ditches. Integrating various management techniques—prevention along with herbicides, mechanical, manual, biological, and cultural methods—will optimize control of tall buttercup.

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Long-term Control of Crown Vetch at a Wisconsin Wildlife Refuge

Long-term Control of Crown Vetch at a Wisconsin Wildlife Refuge

Field trials were conducted on a crown vetch infestation located on Boomerang Island in the Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge in Wisconsin. Eight years following herbicide application control remained greater than 85%.

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Optimizing Knotweed Control and Estimating Costs to Eradicate Populations

Optimizing Knotweed Control and Estimating Costs to Eradicate Populations


Studies conducted by the University of Wisconsin measured Bohemian knotweed (Fallopia x bohemicum) control under various treatment scenarios. These included 1) herbicide selection, rate and application timing, 2) spray volume, 3) mowing prior to herbicide application, and 4) feasibility and cost of knotweed eradication.

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Managing Sericea Lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) with Selective Herbicide

Managing Sericea Lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) with Selective Herbicide

This perennial invasive and exotic legume, also known as Chinese lespedeza, is a threat to native plants in rangeland, pastures, forests and natural areas. Results of herbicide field trials across 21 locations are described.

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BLM and Partners Restore Southeastern New Mexico

The restoration project in southeastern New Mexico encompasses about 6.5 million acres of rangeland in a four-county area. Herbicide application, mechanical removal, biological control, prescribed fire, and reseeding have been implemented to restore about 1.5 million acres.

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Restoring the Bosque: Lessons from 32 Years of Riparian Management

Restoring the Bosque: Lessons from 32 Years of Riparian Management

The Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge lies in the heart of New Mexico’s middle Rio Grande Valley. These valuable wetlands serve as a winter home for tens of thousands of migratory waterfowl. and provide critical habitat for a variety of wildlife. Today, the refuge is one of the largest riparian restoration programs in the southwestern U.S. This article reviews 32 years of wetland restoration and paradigm shifts that resulted from testing and implementing various saltcedar management tools.

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Herbicide Application Timing Critical to Control Exotic Hawkweeds

Herbicide Application Timing Critical to Control Exotic Hawkweeds

This article summarizes field studies established on meadow hawkweed at two sites near Santa, Idaho by Dr. Tim Prather, University of Idaho. Selective herbicides such as Milestone® specialty herbicide have shown to control hawkweeds and release grasses and desirable native forbs. Strategically timed herbicide applications can improve hawkweed control and promote establishment and maintenance of grass cover.


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Identification and Management of Absinth Wormwood

Identification and Management of Absinth Wormwood

Absinth wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.) is a perennial broadleaf plant introduced as an ornamental into North America from Europe in 1841. The plant escaped cultivation and is now widely distributed in the U.S. and Canada. This article describes the biology, ecology, identification, and management of absinth wormwood in natural areas.

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Managing Invasive Nightshades (Horsenettles) in Natural Areas and Pastures

Managing Invasive Nightshades (Horsenettles) in Natural Areas and Pastures

Silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium) and Carolina horsenettle (Solanum carolinense), also known as horse nettle or bull nettle, are deep-rooted, herbaceous, perennial plants in the nightshade family. Article discusses distribution and management of the two invasive nightshades

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Have Burs Will Travel

Have Burs Will Travel

Cocklebur or Burdock—What’s the Difference? Common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) and common burdock (Arctium minus) are members of the sunflower family. This article describes how the two weeds differ in their life cycle, growth form, flower type, and seed heads.

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Managing Autumn Olive in Natural Areas

Autumn olive is an invasive woody shrub or small tree that grows to about 20 feet in height. The plant is commonly found invading open and early-successional woodlands, abandoned agricultural fields, and edges of streams and rivers.

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Autumn Olive and Russian Olive—What’s the Difference?

Autumn Olive and Russian Olive—What’s the Difference?

Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) are invasive, deciduous, woody shrubs or small trees that were introduced for landscaping, soil stabilization, and wildlife food/cover. Both plants became invasive in riparian areas, open forests, lake shores, and abandoned fields.

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Identification & Management of Purple Loosestrife

Identification & Management of Purple Loosestrife

Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) is a perennial, rhizomatous forb that invades riparian areas and other waterways throughout most of the U.S. and southern Canada  The invasive plant threatens biodiversity of wetlands. Successful management requires integrating various management methods.

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Native and Exotic Thistles: Who's Jekyll, Who's Hyde?

Native and Exotic Thistles: Who's Jekyll, Who's Hyde?

There are five common exotic thistles (exluding Centaurea spp., both the starthistles and knapweeds) in the western U.S. that are problematic to some degree across a variety of habitats.

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