Managing Sweetclover in Natural Areas

Managing Sweetclover in Natural Areas

Yellow sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis) and white sweetclover (M. alba) are herbaceous, non-native legumes that are widely distributed in the United States. Learn about the biology, ecology, and management recommendations for sweetclover.

Photo by Elizabeth Bella, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org

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Managing Invasive Buckthorn in Natural Areas

Managing Invasive Buckthorn in Natural Areas

Common (European) buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) and glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus[Rhamnus frangula]) are non-native, deciduous, woody shrubs or small trees introduced to North America during the 1800s. This article describes the effectiveness of various management methods.

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Optimizing Knotweed Control and Estimating Costs to Eradicate Populations

Optimizing Knotweed Control and Estimating Costs to Eradicate Populations


Studies conducted by the University of Wisconsin measured Bohemian knotweed (Fallopia x bohemicum) control under various treatment scenarios. These included 1) herbicide selection, rate and application timing, 2) spray volume, 3) mowing prior to herbicide application, and 4) feasibility and cost of knotweed eradication.

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BLM and Partners Restore Southeastern New Mexico

BLM and Partners Restore Southeastern New Mexico

The restoration project in southeastern New Mexico encompasses about 6.5 million acres of rangeland in a four-county area. Herbicide application, mechanical removal, biological control, prescribed fire, and reseeding have been implemented to restore about 1.5 million acres.

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Restoring the Bosque: Lessons from 32 Years of Riparian Management

Restoring the Bosque: Lessons from 32 Years of Riparian Management

The Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge lies in the heart of New Mexico’s middle Rio Grande Valley. These valuable wetlands serve as a winter home for tens of thousands of migratory waterfowl. and provide critical habitat for a variety of wildlife. Today, the refuge is one of the largest riparian restoration programs in the southwestern U.S. This article reviews 32 years of wetland restoration and paradigm shifts that resulted from testing and implementing various saltcedar management tools.

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Have Burs Will Travel

Have Burs Will Travel

Cocklebur or Burdock—What’s the Difference? Common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) and common burdock (Arctium minus) are members of the sunflower family. This article describes how the two weeds differ in their life cycle, growth form, flower type, and seed heads.

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Native and Exotic Thistles: Who's Jekyll, Who's Hyde?

Native and Exotic Thistles: Who's Jekyll, Who's Hyde?

There are five common exotic thistles (exluding Centaurea spp., both the starthistles and knapweeds) in the western U.S. that are problematic to some degree across a variety of habitats.

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Scentless Chamomile Identification and Management

Scentless chamomile, also known as daisy or scentless false may-weed (Matricaria perforata or Tripleurospermum perforatum), is an annual, biennial, or rarely perennial forb. The weed is widespread in Canada, Alaska, and much of the United States (Figure 1). It establishes well in moist, disturbed areas along streambanks, meadows, riparian areas, pastures, and hayfields.

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Managing Houndstongue in Natural Areas

Managing Houndstongue in Natural Areas

Houndstongue often grows in a complex with other weeds, such as spotted knapweed and Canada thistle. Application of Opensight® specialty herbicide, which combines aminopyralid and metsulfuron-methyl in a dry, water-dispersible granule formulation, effectively controls a complex of houndstongue, knapweed, thistle and many other broadleaf weeds with one application.

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Boots On the Ground: Managing Invasive Plants in the Nation's Largest County-Owned Park

Boots On the Ground: Managing Invasive Plants in the Nation's Largest County-Owned Park

Beaver Creek Park lies in north-central Montana where the prairie meets the Bear Paw Mountains. Within this 10,000-acre natural area are riparian meadows, rolling grasslands, pine forests, aspen and cottonwood groves, rocky cliffs and cascading waterfalls. This interface of prairie and mountains supports a diverse mix of geology, wildlife and vegetation that remains as unique today as it was centuries ago. Managing a park this large with limited resources requires sound vegetation management practices. 

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Woody Plant Control in Northern Prairies

Woody Plant Control in Northern Prairies

Encroachment of woody vegetation threatens the biology and ecology of prairie grasslands. Removing invading woody species improves the function of prairie systems and opens the landscape to provide more suitable habitat for birds and other wildlife that need large blocks of grassland for survival.

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Medusahead Seed Suppression with Spring Application of Milestone® Herbicide

Medusahead Seed Suppression with Spring Application of Milestone® Herbicide

The effectiveness of spring-applied Milestone® specialty herbicide in controlling medusahead seed production was tested in northern California. Read about the effectiveness of controlling this invasive grass with selective herbicides.

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Patience is Key to Controlling Cholla with Herbicides

Patience is Key to Controlling Cholla with Herbicides

Cholla (Cylindropuntia imbricata) often becomes problematic on rangeland when desirable grasses are depleted by drought or over-utilization. The effectiveness of various management methods are discussed including hand and mechanical removal, herbicide rates and  mixing guidelines, and management considerations for using herbicides to optimize cholla control. 

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Synthetic Auxin Herbicides Control Germinating Scotch Broom

Synthetic Auxin Herbicides Control Germinating Scotch Broom

A variety of fire, herbicide, and mechanical treatments are effective for controlling established Scotch broom. However, observations regarding effectiveness of soil-active herbicides in controlling germinating seedlings of Scotch broom are limited. Researchers conducted a series of studies in growth chambers beginning in 2010 to compare the effectiveness of three soil-active auxin herbicides: aminopyralid (Milestone® specialty herbicide), clopyralid (Transline® specialty herbicide) and aminocyclopyrachlor for controlling Scotch broom seedling germination. 

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Logging Debris and Herbicide Treatments for Controlling Scotch Broom

Logging Debris and Herbicide Treatments for Controlling Scotch Broom

Researchers conducted a study near Matlock, Washington investigating the potential of logging debris and herbicide combinations to inhibit germination and development of Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) seedlings. The study site was a mature Douglas-fir forest that was scheduled for harvest. The forest understory included occasional Scotch broom plants that invaded from a previous disturbance, indicating the likely presence of soil-stored seed. 

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Impact of Canada Thistle Cover on Plant Community Structure in Early Stage Prairie Restoration

Impact of Canada Thistle Cover on Plant Community Structure in Early Stage Prairie Restoration

A field study was conducted in Minnesota to determine if there was a threshold of Canada thistle cover that would impact desirable plant community structure.

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