The USDA Plants database lists more than 20 Rubus species (and associated hybrids) that were introduced to North America. Himalayan blackberry (Rubus armeniacus) and cutleaf blackberry (Rubus laciniatus) are the two most widespread of the invasive blackberry species.Read More
Undesirable or invasive woody vegetation threatens the biology and ecology of prairie grasslands and native woodlands. Removing invading woody species can be accomplished year-long, with fall, winter and early spring herbicide applications, extending your vegetation management efforts.
Plants in the carrot (Apiaceae) family share the characteristic of an umbel-shaped flower head. The family includes hundreds of plants, some that are valuable vegetables and herbs, and a few that are masters in chemical warfare. Accurate identification is important for management and avoiding accidental poisoning. This article reviews distribution, identification and management of three invasive, toxic plants in the carrot family: poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa), and giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum).Read More
The carrot (Apiaceae) family comprises 434 genera and about 3,700 species and is characterized by a flat-topped flower cluster, called an umbel. Water hemlock (Cicuta), one of several toxic members of this family, is considered to be the most toxic plant in North America. There are four species of water hemlock in North America, all highly poisonous and native to North America: spotted (C. maculata), western (C. douglasii), bulblet-bearing (C. bulbifera), and Mackenzie’s (C. virosa).Read More
Managing incompatible woody vegetation along utility and transportation rights-of-way (ROW) requires careful planning, consistent budgets, and judicious allocation of time and resources. When budgets or resources are inadequate, planned vegetation maintenance may be postponed to the following growing season or beyond. While delaying maintenance for even one year allows woody vegetation to increase in density and height, the actual increase in time and material to control the vegetation after one or more years of delayed treatment has not been determined.Read More
Spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) is a tap-rooted perennial forb that spreads by seed. Seedlings and mature plants over-winter in a rosette stage and resume growth in early April. Spotted knapweed blooms from mid to late July through mid September.Read More
Yellow (Melilotus officinalis) and white (M. alba) sweetclover are herbaceous, non-native legumes that are widely distributed in the United States. Learn about the biology, ecology, and management recommendations for sweetclover.
Photo by Elizabeth Bella, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.orgRead More
Several biennial thistles are problematic in North America including bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare), musk thistle (Carduus nutans), plumeless thistle (Carduus acanthoides), and Scotch thistle (Onopordum acanthium).Read More
Common (European) buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) and glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus[Rhamnus frangula]) are non-native, deciduous, woody shrubs or small trees introduced to North America during the 1800s as ornamentals, hedgerow plantings, shelterbelts, and wildlife habitat. They escaped cultivation and have aggressively invaded natural areas and forestland throughout much of the United States and Canada (Figure 1). Non-native buckthorn spreads through intentional plantings and through wildlife seed distribution, especially from birds.Read More
Distinguishing between non-native and native buckthorn is important so that management efforts can be targeted appropriately. The following description separates the two invasive buckthorns from the native alderleaf buckthorn.Read More
Field trials were conducted on a crown vetch infestation located on Boomerang Island in the Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge in Wisconsin. Eight years following herbicide application control remained greater than 85%.Read More
Studies conducted by the University of Wisconsin measured Bohemian knotweed (Fallopia x bohemicum) control under various treatment scenarios. These included 1) herbicide selection, rate and application timing, 2) spray volume, 3) mowing prior to herbicide application, and 4) feasibility and cost of knotweed eradication.Read More
This perennial invasive and exotic legume, also known as Chinese lespedeza, is a threat to native plants in rangeland, pastures, forests and natural areas. Results of herbicide field trials across 21 locations are described.Read More
The restoration project in southeastern New Mexico encompasses about 6.5 million acres of rangeland in a four-county area. Herbicide application, mechanical removal, biological control, prescribed fire, and reseeding have been implemented to restore about 1.5 million acres.Read More